Non-print Sources Citation—Audiovisual Works

You found the perfect sources for your research paper and nailed it. You did your happy dance. Then it comes citation time and you realize you’ve used media sources that are not easy to cite. Fret not. Follow this guide and additional resources below to create APA style in-text citations and references for video recording, audio recordings, photographs and images, and more in no time.

The basic elements of citing audiovisual sources are similar to other sources, i.e. Who, When, What, Where. In addition, multimedia sources require you to note their formats in square brackets directly after the title of the work, e.g. [Film], [Photograph]. Below are some templates from Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: the official guide to APA style to get you started. A print copy of this guide is available for in-library use at the Health Sciences Library.

  • In-text Citations
    • Parenthetical citations: (Last Name, Year)
    • Narrative citations: Last Name (Year)
  • References Templates
    • Standalone audiovisual works
      Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date). Title of work [Media format]. Publisher. URL
      Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo’s nest [Film]. United Artists.
    • Standalone audio works
      Host, H. H. (Host). (Date). Title of work [Media format]. Publisher. URL
      Smith, K. & Levy, A. (2018-present). Nature podcast [audio podcast]. Nature Research.
    • Standalone visual works
      Artist, A. A. (Date). Title of work [Media Format]. Publisher. URL
      Wilcox, E. (1960). Medical Center after a snowfall [Photograph]. Archives and Special Collections at the Augustus C. Long Health Sciences Library of Columbia University.

*Please note that in addition to the references, permission and/or a copyright attribution may be necessary in order to reproduce visual works (APA, 2020, pp. 346-347).

Besides the official guide to APA style, there are some fantastic resources available online and through CLIO that offer more detailed tutorials on how to cite various formats of audiovisual sources, such as the Purdue Online Writing Lab.

If you need further guidance on other styles such as MLA or Chicago, Columbia University Libraries have MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Eighth Edition available in print and The Chicago Manual of Style available online.


American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: the official guide to APA style (7th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

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